White Paper – Diabetes Management

Testing Your Blood Sugars!

An important part of managing your diabetes is
testing your blood sugars regularly at home.
Depending on your healthcare provider, you may
be testing your blood sugar levels one to four
times a day. You want to test your blood sugars in
the morning before eating or drinking and 1 to
2 hours after a meal. Keep a log of your blood
sugars to show to your doctor or pharmacist so
they can better manage your therapy. Having your
A1c level tested is also an vital marker to help
providers determine and adjust your treatment.
A1c levels show your average blood sugars for the
past 3 months. This blood test is done at your
healthcare clinic and should be done at least 2
times per year.

Target Glucose Levels:
  • Before meals: 70-130 mg/dL
  • 1 to 2 hours after a meal: < 180 mg/dL
  • A1c: < 7 %
Diabetic Foot Care

People with diabetes may lose sensation and feelin
in their feet. It is important to take care of them to
eliminate possible infections that could lead to
amputations. Checking your feet daily is the best
way to avoid this.

  • Look for cuts, blisters, sores, or redness (If you can’t see your feet, have someone check them for you or use a mirror.)
  • Keep your toenails trimmed by cutting them
    straight across.
  • Examine your shoes daily to make sure there
    isn’t anything in your shoes that could poke
    you (rocks, nails, etc)
  • Wash your feet daily by using warm water
    and drying them well. Then apply a
    moisturizing lotion to your feet, but avoid
    putting it between your toes.

*Foot care may need to be done with your primary
care provider if a patient is dealing with complications.

Contact AuBurn Pharmacy for details on getting
fitted for diabetic shoes! Medicare may cover one
pair of diabetic shoes and insoles per year if certain
criteria is met.

Living a Healthy Lifestyle

Sleep hygiene is a good first step to being a
healthier person. Keeping a regular sleep
schedule is key, and getting 8 hours of sleep
is recommended.

  • Taking daytime naps
  • Exercising right before bed
  • Alcohol, caffeine, or large quantities of
    liquids before bed
  • Bright lights during the night

Changing your eating habits is the most important
aspect of managing your diabetes. Making the
right lifestyle changes will help you feel more
energetic and improve your quality of life. Some
general tips when starting a healthy diet is to focus
on small, gradual changes and making realistic
goals. Try to avoid processed foods, skipping
meals, and drinking your calories. Keeping healthy
snacks on hand and preparing meals ahead of
time is a good way to maintain a healthy diet.

Physical activity is also important and increases
endorphins that can reduce anxiety or depression
and help increase your self-esteem. Your goal
should be to exercise 5 days each week for at least
30 minutes per day, whether it is going to the
gym or just going for a walk. Staying active can
help you lose weight, build lean muscle, decrease
abdominal fat, and decrease your risk of stroke
and heart attack.

Complications of Diabetes
  1. Nephropathy – kidney disease or damage
    a. Most common cause is diabetes and high
    blood pressure
    b. Best therapy is managing these diseases
  2. Vascular Disease – poor circulation which
    can lead to coronary stress and cause stroke
    a. People with diabetes are 2-4x more likely
    to have a heart attack or stroke
  3. Neuropathy – numbness and tingling in
    your legs and arms which could progress to
    total loss of feeling in your extremities.
    a. Causes nerve pain in 60-70% of diabetic
  4. High Blood Pressure
  5. High Cholesterol
  6. Retinopathy – can cause blindness
    a. Once a year eye exam is highly
    recommended in diabetic patients